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Why No One Wanted A&W's Third-Pound Burger

Getty
Getty

Americans have loved McDonald’s Quarter Pounder ever since a franchisee introduced the iconic burger to the country in 1972. In the 1980s, A&W attempted to capitalize on the success of the Quarter Pounder—and drum up a little competition for Ronald and friends—by introducing a third-pound burger. The bigger burger gave consumers more bang for their collective buck. It was priced the same as the Quarter Pounder but delivered more meat. It even outperformed McDonald’s in blind taste tests, with consumers preferring the flavor of A&W’s burger.

But when it came down to actually purchasing the third-pound burgers, most Americans simply would not do it. Baffled, A&W ordered more tests and focus groups. After chatting with people who snubbed the A&W burger for the smaller Quarter Pounder, the reason became clear: Americans suck at fractions. Alfred Taubman, who owned A&W at the time, wrote about the confusion in his book Threshold Resistance:

“People are used to the Fed saying it will tighten but, in the end, with volatility or other risks on the horizon, policymakers take it back and it’s a case of if in doubt, stay on hold,” Mr Koepke says.
2.人工眼睛
Summly was backed by Horizons Ventures, the venture capital arm of Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing, and other tech and media names including actors Ashton Kutcher and Stephen Fry, Spotify’s Shakil Khan and Zynga’s Mark Pincus .
15. 有趣的巧合。环球影业是题材最具多样性的制片公司之一,它发行了《生活残骸》,也发行了《冲出康普顿》,还有《泰迪熊2》(Ted 2)。环球影业的女导演也是最多的,12月初,它占据了今年24%的市场份额。
The Swiss school came top of the list of 90 best masters programmes worldwide in 2016, winning its sixth consecutive crown.
5.卡特彼勒

Not understanding that a fourth is actually smaller than a third, many consumers eschewed the better-tasting burger in favor of the one they thought was the better deal. According to Taubman, A&W recalibrated their marketing, saying, “The customer, regardless of his or her proficiency with fractions, is always right.”

Who is hosting the 2014 Oscars?
James Bond Themes 8. "You Only Live Twice" by Nancy Sinatra

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It didn’t last, but they gave it another shot with the “Sirloin Third Pounder” just last year. That one is gone now, too, but the mighty Quarter Pounder remains a mainstay.

Coursera Has Teamed Up With Disney and Pixar to Celebrate Soul With a Curated Selection Of Courses Aimed at Maximizing Your Creative Side

Coursera
Coursera

Jose's mother Inma Quesada told the El Pais daily that her son "wanted to buy instruments" for his band Los Salerosos (loosely translated as "The Salties"), in which he plays the trumpet.
阿曼达评价说:“十分精彩的演出,你们明星范十足,一定能赢得这场比赛。”

Passion is the fuel of life. It helps ignite our creativity and gives us a purpose in our careers, in our relationships, and even at home when we’re enjoying our favorite hobbies. And the easiest way to spark our passion is through education. In celebration of Disney & Pixar’s Soul streaming only on Disney+ on December 25, Coursera has curated a unique collection of courses for you to explore your artistic and creative interests for personal development and learn new ways to bring passion and purpose to your career.

There are six exclusive collections in all, with each containing six courses organized around a particular theme. If you’re the kind of learner who’ll be taking multiple courses, consider getting a Coursera Plus subscription, which gets you unlimited access to more than 3000 courses—including everything in the collections.

Whether you’re looking to pick up a new hobby, make a move for your dream career, or just want to learn to embrace life’s little pleasures, there’s a course here for anyone looking for a new spark. Plus, from November 20 through December 4, all of the courses in the Soul collection are free for Coursera’s Black Friday promotion. Find your perfect course collection below.

Disney & Pixar/Coursera

The Creative Life

肥皂剧通常都在电视收视排行榜上位居前列,但2012最流行的电视节目是英国广播电台儿童节目《麦克小骑士》,它打败了美国惊悚电视剧《国土安全》和真人秀节目《Towie》。
以人民币计算,12月份出口环比成功增长0.6%,超过了收缩0.1%的预期,不过仍大大低于11月份5.9%的增幅。以人民币计的进口增长10.8%,是预期4.8%的增幅的两倍以上,不过仍比上个月低2.2个百分点。
Does he have the ability to communicate his plans for what comes next—whatever they might be—to a fan base that's rightfully demanding answers after another ugly season on and off the court?
对民主主义者而言,此类原始情绪的爆发之所以令人担忧是因为它们很难遏制。
It seems safe to predict lots more noise and very little progress for the rest of 2017. And that will continue to be a damaging combination for business and the UK economy.
蓝天和空气一样,对每个人都是平等的。
"The essential question of the Sino-Japanese relationship is if Japan can accept the fact that China is growing stronger and more powerful." CUI TIANKAI, member of the CPPCC National Committee and vice-minister of foreign affairs

Creative Careers

Marco Montanari, the head of passive asset management for Asia-Pacific at Deutsche AM, agrees that fundamental changes to distribution must be made before the Asian ETF market can move to the next level.
007系列电影主题曲第十名:雪莉·巴赛--《永远的钻石》
['breik.θru:]
Across all European schools, the average salary of alumni three years after graduation ranges from $143,000 for executive MBA graduates to $54,000 for MiM graduates. MBA graduates earned on average $123,000. Spanish and German MiM graduates enjoyed the highest salary three years after graduation, both $70,000 on average. French MBA graduates and Swiss EMBA graduates top their salary scale, with average salaries of $137,000 and $166,000 respectively.
There are, of course, complicated contours to 2016’s unusual politics. In Britain, immigrants from South Asia voted heavily to leave the European Union, citing hopes that curtailing European migration might open space for more people from Asia. In the United States, frustration with and alienation from status quo politics have helped drive Mr. Trump’s rise.
这份排行榜衡量的是商学院研究生课程的质量和广度。它基于相关商学院在英国《金融时报》每年发布的4个主要榜单上的表现:MBA、EMBA、管理硕士和高管教育。只有参与所有这4项排名的商学院才有资格获得满分。
互联网已经让世界变成了平面,Facebook让我们大家团结起来,组成一个大家庭。我们的祖父那一辈人是地区的传承者,我们这代人是国家的传承者,而你们则是世界的传承者。你现在和任何人的联系只有4.74个人的距离,到达全球任何有人居住的角落平均只需要两天时间。你可以踏上旅途。无论是非洲、欧洲、印度、中国还是巴西,前往那些能让你学到最多东西的地方,拥抱那个可以教给你最多东西的国度。
排在第八位的是29岁的中国模特刘雯,她的收入为650万美元,她是榜单上唯一一位亚洲模特,这也反映了缺少多样性的问题依然影响着模特界。

Purposeful Living

这位名叫波比·博伊登的小选美冠军穿着一身黑色的连衣裤,带着鬈曲的假发,非常熟练的跳着扭臀舞,向观众们飞吻。
2010年中国的房价将达到顶点?
今年中国经济成V字形强劲复苏,随之而来的是许多关于城市房价疯涨的报道。
Chinese people are intelligent and hardworking and they have an inexhaustible drive for pursuing a better life for themselves. The government needs to create the enabling environment for our people to fully use their talent and initiative.
n. 商业广告
Last week, Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta said that the former first lady's shortlist of potential running mates will include women, quickly leading to speculation that Clinton will consider Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren, a popular progressive, for an all-female ticket.

Professional Development

根据迪拜政府的最新预测,在迪拜旅游的游客今年将消费313亿美元,远远超过伦敦游客消费的198亿美元。伦敦在游客消费榜单中排名第二。
United States emissions had been declining because of increased burning of natural gas in power generation, which emits less carbon dioxide for each unit of energy than does coal. But the nation reported an increase in 2013 as coal regained some market share. If that trend continues, it could prove to be a challenge for the Obama administration as it seeks to institute tighter policies on greenhouse gases.
单词galaxy 联想记忆:
品牌VS市场
n. 保护,防卫
未来数年时间内,截止2018年,支出将上升至1.3万亿美元。而1000亿美元的丙型肝炎药物支出及同等的癌症治疗费用,还有780亿美元的糖尿病治疗费用都将是构成支出上升的因素。
But markets plunged following the ECB decision. Investors complained that the central bank had misled markets about the amount of extra stimulus it was prepared to inject to shore up the recovery.

Personal Development

Teach First自成立以来将5000名毕业生送入学校任教,与低收入地区的逾100万学生合作,帮助提高了教学质量,尤其是伦敦地区的教学质量。
[k?n'denst]
The committee *bestowed the award upon Yoshinori Ohsumi of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, for his research on *autophagy, which is a self-eating process seen in cells.
北韩已经警告过Park,如果电影穿越边境,将会要他"以命偿罪"。
Andrew Hill is management editor
根据中国海关总署(General Administration of Customs)的数据,在经历了此前一个月的同比下跌1.4%之后,11月份中国的进口同比增长6.7%,至1522亿美元,远高于同比收缩1.9%的预测中值。
I experienced this pessimism personally in Davos in January 2014. Several leading western intellectuals asked me whether war would break out between China and Japan. I was so confident that there would be no war in east Asia that I offered to take bets with ten-to-one odds against myself with eminent western journalists. Two took up my bets. And I will be collecting on these bets when I return to Davos in January.
The book — published by Basic Books and Oneworld Publications — won out against a strong shortlist dominated by books on technology.
Even if Gibson turns out to be a rental and leaves as a free agent this summer, the Thunder will likely feel good about these trade terms.

Career Change

根据普京最近的一次收入申报,2015年他总计收入大约为890万卢布(约合13.7万美元)。
Barack Obama went on the offensive over foreign policy in the third and final presidential debate, repeatedly accusing Mitt Romney of flip-flopping on major international issues but failing to deliver a killer blow to his opponent's resurgent campaign.
《初来乍到》(Fresh off the Boat),ABC,2月4日播出。这部喜剧是根据大厨与美食、旅游真人秀主持人黄颐铭的回忆录改编的,讲述20世纪90年代中期的佛罗里达,一个华裔美国家庭克服文化冲突,努力适应美国生活的故事。哈德逊·杨(Hudson Yang)饰演迷恋嘻哈乐的11岁男孩艾迪,在《采访》(The Interview)中饰演金正恩的兰道尔·朴(Randall Park)饰演他的父亲,一位郊区牛排餐厅骄傲的店主。
今年中国经济成V字形强劲复苏,随之而来的是许多关于城市房价疯涨的报道。
此外,她还指出同工同酬的问题。她表示这不仅仅是女性的问题,这实际影响到每一个人。希拉里表示:"如果你有妻子,母亲,姐妹,女儿,她们在工作中没有被公平对待,那么整个家庭都会为此受影响。"
另一种看法是,油价在过去三年中的变动,是长期结构性变化的开始,预示着下一个50年里,能源价格按实际值计算将显著低于上一个50年。简单地说,持这种看法的人认为,供给的增长潜力超过需求增长。
The import side of the equation fared worse in both renminbi- and dollar-terms.
《ScreamRide》
腾讯通过聊天软件QQ的渠道将用户吸引到它的网络游戏和网站上去。分析师说,类似的模式对于微信也有可能非常管用。他们也说,微信的“朋友圈”功能给它加进了社交网络的元素,有可能最终吸引到广告商。

Stream Disney & Pixar’s Soul December 25 only on Disney+, and learn more about Coursera Plus here.

20 Thanksgiving Facts to Liven Up Your Meal

Share these Thanksgiving facts in between mouthfuls of pumpkin pie.
Share these Thanksgiving facts in between mouthfuls of pumpkin pie.
Element5 Digital, Unsplash

While you’re gathering with loved ones this Thanksgiving—whether in person or over Zoom—you may find yourself making small talk family you haven't seen in a while. These 20 facts are sure to keep them fascinated until it’s time for the feast to begin.

1. There’s a connection between Thanksgiving and “Mary Had a Little Lamb.”

Writer Sarah Josepha Hale is credited with the 1830 poem "Mary's Lamb," which was eventually turned into the famous children's song. (Whether she was behind the entire poem is still debated.) But although the tune has been a childhood favorite for well over a century, it's arguably not even Hale's most important contribution to the United States. As a native of New Hampshire, Hale had grown up with Thanksgiving festivities and was dismayed the holiday wasn't federally recognized. When she became editor of Godey's Lady's Book, she used her platform to write editorials and articles about the celebration, and also lobbied the government to declare an official holiday.

Hale used the outbreak of the Civil War to push even harder for a national day of Thanksgiving, thinking that setting aside one day for the entire country “would be of great advantage, socially, nationally, [and] religiously.” Abraham Lincoln agreed, and in 1863 he released an official proclamation that made Thanksgiving the final Thursday in November.

2. Not everyone thought Thanksgiving was a great idea.

Even the thought of pumpkin pie couldn't sweeten some people on the idea of Thanksgiving. 272447, Pixabay

When Lincoln declared the national holiday again in 1864, a Confederate editorialist from Richmond took the opportunity to insult both the Yankees and the recently re-elected Lincoln, saying: “This is an annual custom of that people, heretofore celebrated with devout oblations to themselves of pumpkin pie and roast turkey.”

3. For a short time, “Franksgiving” existed.

With only two exceptions, later presidents would follow Lincoln’s tradition of declaring the final Thursday in November Thanksgiving—until 1939, when Franklin Delano Roosevelt bumped it up a week in response to pressure from American retailers. You see, many people don't start holiday shopping until after Thanksgiving, so when the final Thursday coincided with the last day of the month, it cut the holiday shopping season—and sales—short. Though the calendar change made retailers happy, it angered FDR's opponents. Conservative states refused to acknowledge the holiday they referred to as "Franksgiving," continuing to give thanks on the last Thursday of the month. The split continued until a compromise was reached, and FDR signed legislation that made the fourth Thursday official.

4. Thomas Jefferson wasn’t a fan of Thanksgiving.

Until Lincoln standardized the date and tradition of Thanksgiving proclamations, presidents were far more haphazard in declaring it. George Washington issued Thanksgiving proclamations and John Adams issued proclamations for fasting and prayer. But Thomas Jefferson didn’t. At the time, Thanksgiving was very closely tied with religion and prayer, and Jefferson was a staunch supporter of the separation of church and state. In a letter to Reverend Samuel Miller in 1808, Jefferson wrote,

Consoles: PlayStation 4
学会控制自己的情绪,控制自己的想法,克服对被拒绝的恐惧,学会向别人敞开心扉。
3.Video Editing: 19.2 percent increase
The new governor also seeks to privatize services such as the generation of energy, establish an office to oversee and distribute federal funds to cut down on corruption, and to create financial incentives for doctors to boost the number of dwindling specialists.
I was waiting for you to bring up the Nets’ situation, so fine, I'll do it here. Jeremy Lin's been out for weeks with a hamstring injury. They're the only team tanking correctly and they're not actually tanking!
澳大利亚整体排名第八,这个位于南半球的国家,“生活质量”排名第四,“冒险指数”排名第九,教育排名第十。
One of the country's largest clinics, JK Plastic Surgery Center founded by Joo Kwon, recently opened a hotel to better serve customers, who spend an average of $17,675 during a single visit.
adj. 奢侈的,浪费的,过度的,大量的
sc=scene(n 风景),roll(n 卷)-卷着风景的画卷
200911/88510.shtml
他说,“油价将波动上行。”
Sweden, one of the most generous countries in terms of contributing funds to humanitarian aid, ranks No. 6 overall. The country is No. 2 in Citizenship and No. 1 in Best Countries for Green Living.

5. The first Thanksgiving feast looked very different from what we’re used to.

There was no cranberry sauce, no mashed potatoes, no sweet potatoes—and possibly no turkey. Some historical documents that recorded that first Thanksgiving have survived, so we know the Wampanoag brought deer. Wild turkey may have been part of the menu, but certainly not a focus or a centerpiece like it is today. Instead, they likely dined on passenger pigeons, swan, eel, lobster, clams, and mussels. Side dishes may have included corn, beans, and vegetables like turnips and squash.

6. There were no balloons at the first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade.

The 40-to-75-foot brightly colored character balloons are a hallmark of the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade these days, but when the parade debuted in 1924, there was not a single balloon in sight. Instead, there were nursery rhyme-themed floats, a visit from Santa Claus, and real animals borrowed from the Central Park Zoo. The first character balloon—Felix the Cat—was introduced in 1927. The next year, newspapers announced that the helium-filled balloons would be released at the end of the parade. They were fitted with a special release valve so that around a week later they would come back to the ground and members of the public could send them to Macy’s for a reward.

7. To promote his state as the birthplace of Thanksgiving, a senator appeared on The Tonight Show dressed like a pilgrim.

Not everyone believes the first Thanksgiving took place in Plymouth. On December 4, 1619, a ship called the Margaret landed in what is now Virginia. Captain John Woodlief documented the day as one that must be celebrated “yearly and perpetually kept holy as a day of Thanksgiving to Almighty God"—and the settlers did, until many of them were slaughtered by the Powhatan in 1622. More than 300 years later, Virginia Senator John J. Wicker, Jr. spent much of the 1960s pushing his state as the birthplace of the first Thanksgiving, even appearing on The Tonight Show dressed as a pilgrim.

8. The Turducken’s history goes beyond Thanksgiving.

John Madden may have popularized the practice of stuffing a chicken into a duck and the duck into a turkey. But he certainly didn't invent the idea of meat nesting dolls. The practice goes all the way back to at least 1774, when an edition of the book The Art of Cookery documented a "Yorkshire Christmas Pie" that involved stuffing pigeon, partridge, fowl, and goose into a turkey. Even more elaborate examples followed, including an 1807 creation called the "roast without equal" by Alexandre Balthazar Laurent Grimod de La Reynière; it included up to 17 different birds. The tradition eventually found its way to New Orleans, which is where Madden enjoyed his first turducken experience. "It smelled and looked so good," Madden told The New York Times in 2002. "I didn't have any plates or silverware or anything, and I just started eating it with my hands.'' He began promoting the dish on-air, and the legend was born.

9. You probably can’t carve your Thanksgiving turkey as fast as Paul Kelly.

Kelly, a British turkey producer, is the Guinness World Record holder, with a warp-speed time of 3 minutes and 19.47 seconds. He also holds the turkey plucking record, besting even Gordon Ramsay: Kelly plucked three birds in 11 minutes, 30.16 seconds, while Ramsay came in a close second at 11 minutes, 31.78 seconds.

10. Thanksgiving Eve is one of the biggest drinking nights of the year.

After a night at the bars, he probably didn't feel as enthusiastic on Thanksgiving morning.MabelAmber, Pixabay

Forget New Year's Eve. According to the Wall Street Journal, "Blackout Wednesday" is the top drunk-driving night in many parts of the United States. The unfortunate phenomenon is likely due to college students (and other people who are home for the holidays) catching up with old friends the night before their family gatherings. In 2012, Mothers Against Drunk Driving reported that there are more drunk driving deaths at Thanksgiving than at Christmas.

11. "Jingle Bells" was originally a Thanksgiving song.

We may associate the cheerful song with Christmas these days, but when James Lord Pierpont wrote it in the mid-19th century, he likely intended it to be sung at Thanksgiving. The tune was originally called "One Horse Open Sleigh." While the transition from one holiday to the other is a little fuzzy, one thing's for sure—"Jingle Bells" was firmly in the Christmas lineup by December 16, 1965, when astronauts Wally Schirra and Thomas Stafford played it on a harmonica while in orbit on Gemini 6, making it the first song played in outer space. The pranksters launched into the song after announcing that they had spotted a UFO of some sort.

12. Your family doesn’t want to talk politics at Thanksgiving dinner.

According to the 2017 Meyocks Thanksgiving Survey, 36 percent of people say politics should be avoided at Thanksgiving. If you have a relative who won't leave the subject alone, Lizzie Post, co-president of the Emily Post Institute and great-great-granddaughter of Emily Post, advises that it's best to say, "I would really love to get away from politics at the Thanksgiving table this year."

13. There’s a reason the Detroit Lions and the Dallas Cowboys always play football on Thanksgiving.

Spoiler alert: It was all a marketing scheme. When the Lions franchise moved to Detroit, Michigan, from Portsmouth, Ohio, in 1934, the citizens of Detroit weren't as excited to get a team as you might think—because they already had one, baseball's Detroit Tigers. In an attempt to get the city excited about its second team, owner George Richards came up with the idea of having a game on Thanksgiving. Because he was well-connected, Richards managed to convince NBC to broadcast the game on 94 stations across the U.S. It worked: The Lions filled the stadium to capacity and had to turn fans away at the gate. When the Dallas Cowboys picked up on the marketing scheme in 1966, fans broke the attendance record, and both teams have upheld the Turkey Day tradition nearly every year since.

14. The way we depict pilgrims is all wrong.

The black outfits, white collars, and buckled hats aren’t accurate. The actual pilgrims wore trousers, shirts, and dresses of various colors. Women sported colors like red, earthy green, brown, blue, violet, and gray. Men preferred white, beige, earthy green, brown, and black, but we also have evidence that one of the dlders, William Brewster, wore a red vest and a purple vest. The way the Native Americans are depicted is also misleading: "[They] certainly didn't go around in the chilly New England autumn half-naked," said Laurence Pizer, the former director of Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts.

15. "Unthanksgiving" is celebrated every Alcatraz Island.

Every year, indigenous people and their supporters gather at Alcatraz for a sunrise service where they give thanks for the survival of their people. The event was originally founded in 1975, partially in response to the story we're told about Pilgrims and indigenous people living in harmony. "That's not what happened and we know it," says Andrea Carmen, the executive director of the International Indian Council. But over time, the group has adopted a different outlook. "The message of Unthanksgiving doesn't convey the true feeling of indigenous people," Carmen told the East Bay Express, "which is to give thanks every day for our survival, and the survival of the natural world, and the courage of our ancestors who fought and struggled and resisted to keep our culture alive for us." Now more properly called the Indigenous Peoples Sunrise Ceremony, events include traditional dances and a prayer to the rising sun.

16. There’s a Thanksgiving wine.

Beaujolais Nouveau, a fruity red wine from the Beaujolais region of France, is annually released on the third Thursday of November, also known as Beaujolais Nouveau Day. The release date has become quite the event in Paris, where people have competed since the 1950s to see who can get the first bottles from Beaujolais to Paris. Marketers in the U.S. have used the November release date to pair the wine with the holiday, recommending Beaujolais as a terrific match for turkey.

17. Butterball isn’t the only turkey hotline you can call for help with your Thanksgiving feast.

These turkey hotlines can help home cooks avert a Thanksgiving feast fiasco.A-Ray, Pixabay

The Butterball Turkey Talk-Line is famous for the calls it gets from uncertain cooks on Thanksgiving. But 1-800-BUTTERBALL isn't the only game in town. If you can't reach any of the 50+ Butterball experts, you can also call the following numbers:

  • 2. Mila Kunis
  • 本市企业登记实现“二十四证合一”
  • SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico (AP) — Puerto Rico’s new governor was sworn in Monday as the U.S. territory prepares for what many believe will be new austerity measures and a renewed push for statehood to haul the island out of a deep economic crisis.

18. At one point, you could have called Julia Child for Thanksgiving dinner help.

Who needs a turkey hotline when you have Julia Child herself as a resource? During the 1970s and '80s, Child's number was publicly listed in the phone book, so enterprising home chefs took it upon themselves to dial her digits when they were having cooking troubles on Thanksgiving. Though she could have left her number unlisted or simply unplugged her phone on high-traffic days, Child refused. She always answered the phone, and, most of the time, she just told them whatever they needed to hear so they could chill out and enjoy their holidays, including to simply serve the turkey cold.

19. The most popular Thanksgiving dishes may surprise you.

According to Google’s 2017 list of the most popular Thanksgiving side dishes in every state, people’s dinner plates may look pretty different. While favorites like stuffing, green beans, sweet potatoes, and pecan pie make many lists, there are also a few surprises. If you live in South Dakota or Oregon, don't be surprised to find Ambrosia salad on the table. Ohio is particularly fond of seven-layer salad, while sausage stuffing is on the menu in Connecticut. Arizona prefers pumpkin roll, while New York can't do without acorn squash.

20. Black Friday isn’t named for the day businesses got back into the black.

You've probably heard the tale that the massive amounts of shopping that take place on Black Friday is the day that many businesses finally make the financial flip from being in the red to being in the black. In reality, the term dates back to the 1950s, when the Philadelphia police used it to refer to the day after Thanksgiving, which was also the day before the annual Army-Navy football game. Local retailers tried to take advantage of the crowds by having sales and calling it “Big Friday,” which resulted in utter madness in the stores. People used the mayhem to shoplift, so between the extra traffic, crowd control, and arrests, the police were not too happy about having to work some pretty serious overtime—hence the name. By the 1980s, the discounts and super sales started creeping across the nation.