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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

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It remains the world's largest country and the largest oil producer. It retains its permanent seat on the UN Security Council. Its nuclear arsenal (in Cold War times one of five countries, but now one of nine) has been progressively modernised. Sustained increases in defence spending have brought it close to its goal of escalation dominance in local and regional war.
1、Procrastination
其他在定制课程排名中表现突出的学校包括哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School),该院取得了今年最大幅度的排名攀升,上升9位至第5名。两年前,这所位于马萨诸塞州的学院还排在第18位。

近日,新一期福布斯世界富豪排行榜揭晓,比尔·盖茨在近22年内第17次问鼎榜首。
域名注册公司GoDaddy的总部设在亚利桑那州斯科茨代尔市,该公司5月份在坦佩开工建设新的全球技术中心。GoDaddy公司已经在大凤凰城地区雇佣了2,600名员工,新工厂预计将增加300多个工作岗位。其他在亚利桑那州扩大规模的公司包括领先的技术保障服务公司 Asurion。这家公司在凤凰城开设了新的技术支持中心,将在今年年底招聘500多个职位。能源供应商Direct Energy今年在亚利桑那州坦佩开设了新的呼叫中心,需要招聘300多名员工。
For all of the acceptance speech kerfuffle when Gwyneth Paltrow won best actress for her role as Viola de Lesseps in John Madden’s 1998 film Shakespeare in Love, the Hollywood star has since said she keeps the award tucked away – “the thing freaks me out”.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

成本持续猛涨 对陶瓷产业链影响几何?

《南华早报》援引当地公安局李剑敏告诉新华社记者的消息:“整个加工车间里又腥又臭,人进去待一两分钟就受不了。”
Shares in Hyundai and AmorePacific slid on Friday, down 4.4 per cent and 12.5 per cent respectively in late afternoon trading in Seoul.
infection

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

在根据真实罪案改编的电影《狐狸猎手》(Foxcatcher)中,以出演喜剧闻名的演员史蒂夫·卡瑞尔(Steve Carell)饰演大富翁约翰·E·杜邦(John E. du Pont)时隐藏在假面具后面。这个造型最突出的就是鸟嘴状鼻子。
第二步 重复标志性动作
Who was buried here?

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • While at least four engines tend to repeat from one year’s 10 best list to the next, only two of last year’s powerplants remain recognized for 2014, the Honda Accord’s peppy and fuel-efficient 3.5-liter V6 and the powerful supercharged 3.0-liter V6 featured in the Audi S5.
  • 国务院常务会议:推进国企混合所有制改革
  • 她曾为Glitzy Girl、Sally Miller和Purple Pixies等服装公司担任模特,也为《Teen Vogue》《Cosmopolitan》《Elle》和《Seventeen》等杂志拍摄照片。
  • 陶瓷行业排放提标在即 多家企业称“迷茫”
  • 下半年广州市区楼市新货将聚焦奥体广钢和新市
  • 楼市终于出现反弹。S&P/Case-Shiller指数显示,2012年前九个月全国房价上涨7%。与此同时,住宅建筑业正在发力,给建筑工人、承包商和建筑商带来了更多工作机会。5月份以来建筑工作增加了2.9万个左右。券商Miller Tabak & Co.经济学家威尔金森(Andrew Wilkinson)指出,建筑市场的就业环境已经明显解冻。解冻的不只是建筑业。为装修住宅的美国人提供服务的零售企业也将需要招人。[qh]
    梅瑟威一场拳赛的要价可以高达7000万英镑,但是他去年的收入只排在榜单上位居第16位。去年梅瑟威的拳赛收入达到了2000万英镑,此外他的服装品牌TMT(The Money Team)也给他贡献了500万英镑。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 上海市5月新房成交量继续下跌 限价房成交居首, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

农村土地“三权分置”观察:产业活起来 农民富起来

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

商务部关于美国对中国输美产品加征关税的声明

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 以我所有的爱心与真诚祝你及全家圣诞快乐。
    “FKA细枝”(FKA twigs),《两星期》(Two Weeks),Young Turks
  • Baby Driver
    ●Van Full Of Illegals Shows Up To Vote Clinton At SIX Polling Places, Still Think Voter Fraud Is A Myth?
    其中涉嫌售假的占比近45%,同比去年上升18.2%。消费者差评、频繁退货、投诉案例也很多。部分商家通过虚假低价的商业陷阱来促销商品。
    他赢得了名动词奖,而其姐妹奖,最佳动词名词化奖,则由另一位顾问凭借这句“全球联络”(global touch-base)摘得。
    vt. 起草,征

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 家纺“微信门”进入司法程序 富安娜向梦洁家纺索赔200万
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 未来十年OLED照明迎繁荣期 2023年总产值超460亿

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

据此网站统计,排名第二的慈善明星是前迪斯尼明星后转型歌手的麦莉塞勒斯。准爸爸查宁塔图姆名列第三。
We will push forward with structural adjustment in agriculture.
At the last minute he opted instead for Teach First, the educational charity that has become the UK’s biggest recruiter of new graduates. Rather than parachuting into companies that needed restructuring, Mr Ravenscroft started teaching business and economics at Cardinal Pole School, which serves 11-19 year old boys and girls in Hackney, east London.
eccentric
所以,是的,我认为他们应该果断垫底甚至交易伊巴卡以换取更多的价值,尽管这变脸来得有点快。唉,天啊,这支队伍实在太诡异了。
The GDP of Southwest China's Chongqing Municipality grew by 10.7 percent in 2016, hitting 1.76 trillion yuan. Southwest China's Guizhou province and Tibet autonomous region posted 10.5 percent and 10 percent growth respectively.
"To make the world a better place, I invented a transformative water purifier," Google quoted Zhang as saying. "It takes in dirty and polluted water from rivers, lakes and even oceans, then massively transforms the water into clean, safe and sanitary water. When humans and animals drink this water, they will live a healthier life."

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • The actor - who is heavily tipped for his first Oscar this year - won the gong for best actor in a film drama for his role in The Revenant, beating rivals including Eddie Redmayne who was nominated for The Danish Girl.
  • 湖北首单联合创设的民营企业债券融资支持工具落地
  • The report also found traffic congestion in first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Shanghai have stopped getting worse with local government efforts.
    Astronomers confirmed a key part of Einstein’s general theory of relativity in 2016 when they announced that the LIGO array had detected gravitational waves released by the collision of two black holes. The researchers won a Nobel Prize for the discovery. But they’re not done: In October, scientists announced the finding of two dead stars colliding — not only hearing the ripples in space-time they made, but confirming the event visually with powerful telescopes. Collisions of neutron stars are believed to be the source of all heavy metals in the universe, including gold and silver, and the detection by LIGO helps verify accepted explanations of how the chemistry of the universe formed.
  • 广州拍地年度“巨无霸”来了
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 近年来,大多数发达国家的排放量一直在逐步下降,这部分是因为不景气的经济形势,同时也是因为日益加强的气候政策。2013年,由28个国家组成的欧洲联盟(European Union)的排放量下降了1.8%,虽然德国和波兰等几个国家的耗煤量出现增加。英国、意大利和西班牙的排放量显著下降。
    即将来到的投放是为了纪念南韩2010年沉船事件的第五周年,当时有46位船员死亡。南韩把责任归咎于北韩,并且很快的冻结了一切两韩之间的交易和投资纽带。
  • With this in mind, he does anticipate a pick-up in US investment “because it has been so weak — we don’t normally see it grow at a lower pace than consumption except in a recession”.
    Length of program: 21 months
  • The Aftermath of Zika Virus
    n. 流通,循环,发行量,消息传播
  • The data showed that Samsung took the top spot, followed by Apple in second place. Even so, the shipments of the two top tech giants declined respectively by 3 percent and 7 percent, demonstrating decreased global market shares.
    Mr Crabb has taken no exposure to Hong Kong’s property market since setting up in Asia 18 months ago, because he says prices are too high and affordability too low.
    该剧因为爱情戏份太多,对周莹奋斗的故事描写太少而受到批评,其豆瓣评分为7.2分。
  • 但他并没有做到这些。所以普莱斯蒂聪明的在他还有交易价值的时候把他送走了。
    8. You left your résumé in the freaking printer!
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 新政出台四天狂降40%!苏州房价暴跌也疯狂 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

成都:建设“五中心一枢纽” 构建五大主体功能区

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

产品与服务两手抓 陶瓷互联网经济才能落地

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

长租公寓甲醛污染:用最差的地板 装修仅需两万元

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

LED照明巨头分拆估值69亿搅动“中国买家”热情

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 'This child is going somewhere big, you mark my words.'
  • It is the first time that EMBA-Global, the joint programme delivered by London Business School and Columbia Business School, has dropped out of the top five.
  • 长三角楼市急速回暖 部分城市售楼速度创新高

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 4)我来搞定它:你专心致志地听别人说话。然后你说,“轻松一点,别担心。我会亲自搞定它的。”这样的承诺会让所有人都放松下来。如果想要做出更大的承诺,你就可以说,“我向你保证。”这样的表态会让你看起来更可靠。在对方眼里,你已经进入角色,并且会尽一切努力去完成的。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • BABYLON (Sundance, Thursday) James Nesbitt, recently seen as the obsessed father of a long-vanished child in “The Missing,” shows up here in a very different role: as a calculating old-school police commissioner who hires an American public-relations expert (Brit Marling) to update the image of Scotland Yard. Danny Boyle (“Slumdog Millionaire”) created this satirical drama, which bears some resemblance to Armando Iannucci’s political comedy film “In the Loop.”
    'If you read Trigger Mortis, you’ll see actually there is a little twist to the tale in that particular story which I think sort of pays him off for his slightly patronising attitude.'
    Trium在三个指标上名列第一:攻读课程前学员的工作经历、实现的目标,以及国际课程经历。该课程学员在毕业3年后的平均薪资排名第二(30.7003万美元),仅次于Kellogg/HKUST联合推出的课程。
  • That was a less marked jump than the 3 percentage point rise from August to September, however, suggesting recent curbs to property purchases may be having some effect.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 这段深入11岁女孩心灵与情感的旅程可能是皮克斯迄今最疯狂的冒险。这是一部非常有趣的工作场合情景喜剧,艾米·波勒(Amy Poehler)、菲利丝·史密斯(Phyllis Smith)和敏迪·卡灵(Mindy Kaling)等人带来了精彩感人的演出,这是一则关于心理发展的精巧语言,也是对于悲伤在我们的生活中所扮演的角色的一种感人而诚恳的辩护。
  • 中国地板企业打赢美国反倾销官司 生活家等反倾销税率为零
  • 2021届哈佛待入学新生的脸书官方主页提醒学生,“如果新生在诚信、成熟度或道德品质方面存在问题,那么校方保留针对恶劣情况取消学生入学资格的权利。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 深市公司2018年半年度业绩持续增长 市场平稳运行的业绩基础稳固
  • Household substance abuse
  • 门窗行业成本涨带来价格涨 是好是坏?
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

郎咸平“3+1”模式:建材家居新出路

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 自如回应“男子租房患病去世”事件:与家属保持沟通,全力安抚家属妥善补偿
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 北京市住建委:公租房转租行为再次被严肃处理
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

在这月初这封信上写着的地址是宾夕法尼亚大学的某个邮箱。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

报告称,迪拜排名第四,预计接待游客1527万人,“突飞猛进,成为全球旅游消费最高的城市”。
高盛将大派红包,饱受各方抨击一个月,然后静悄悄地干回自己的老本行--挣钱。
成千上万在外求学的人或者在外工作的人都会在春节临近时回家团圆。这个传统是造成春运压力的主要原因。另外一个原因就是春节正好是中国两大黄金周之一,是许多人旅游的好时机。春运一般从节前15天开始到节后25天结束。
Antarctic
Forbes said that much of the decline in Trump's net worth is due to softness in the midtown Manhattan real estate market.
We will ensure workplace safety and people's lives.
Soon after the conclusion of the 2016 national post-graduate entrance examination on Sunday, the Ministry of Education was informed of suspected leaks of exam questions.
A network of walking and biking trails leads to other lakeside neighborhoods and to downtown, which is about 15 minutes by bicycle and 10 by car. The Walker Art Center and other museums are nearby. Hockey and skating are popular on the lakes in winter; canoeing, swimming and fishing in the summer.
从单个大宗商品来看,预计咖啡价格将大幅下跌,目前为1磅1.62美元左右,投资者对阿拉比卡咖啡前景尤为悲观。
1号 what the fuck: “职场辣妈”的新境界

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

中介透露抛售行为显现 多套房业主挂牌或增多

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 根据电影监管机构数据显示,中国电影票房销售额在去年同比了增长48.7%
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Chinese mainland is home to two of the top three universities in Asia, according to research published last Thursday by the Times Higher Education (THE).
  • 互联网定制成橱柜产业发展新方向
  • 立场:为LGBT(指同性恋、双性恋和变性人)群体争取工作权益
  • 调控显成效 安徽省上半年房产投资销售双增长
  • Rogers, unhappy with the turn of events, decided to leave the show after the first three seasons. The breach of contract led to a multi-million dollar lawsuit. Ironically, Wayne Rogers had never signed his contract to begin with (he had a problem with a morals clause). The lawsuit was thrown out. You could say Rogers got the last laugh, but since M·A·S·H went on for eight more seasons and Rogers' never reached the same career success again, the last laugh might be a relative concept.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 全国工商联提案治理建材企业粉尘污染
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 不过巴蒂表示,中国大学排名的稳定并不值得担忧。他说:“数十年的持续投资建设以及中国高等教育国际化程度的提高,无疑将使得中国的大学变得越来越好。”
  • But the temperature of 1998 is now being surpassed every four or five years, and 2014 was the first time that happened without a significant El Ni?o. Gavin A. Schmidt, head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in Manhattan, said the next strong El Ni?o would probably rout all temperature records.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

宣城市多部门联手综合整治宣城东门建材市场

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